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Archive for February, 2018

Dr. Mike McGrady, Hawk Mountain Sanctuary Research Associate

13 Feb 2018

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An adult Egyptian vulture that was captured and fitted with a GPS transmitter in Oman.  Adult Egyptian vultures are mostly white from about 4 yreas of age, with black flight feathers.  Juveniles are brown, and subaduts are mottled, becoming ever whiter with age.  Photo: M. McGrady.

Like so many Old World vultures, the Egyptian vulture is globally endangered.  The threats to Egyptian vultures are pretty much the same as those that other Old World vultures face, and include electrocution, changes in food availability, direct and indirect persecution, targeted and inadvertent poisoning, and hunting for the black magic market.  Its endangered status and the threats notwithstanding, the Sultanate of Oman is a stronghold for Egyptian vultures, because it apparently has a healthy resident population and is a wintertime destination for a substantial number of migrants from farther north.

Since 2012, International Avian Research (IAR) has been working with the Environment Society of Oman (ESO) conducting research on Egyptian vultures in Oman.  That work has included surveys on Masirah Island (which was found to be home to the second densest breeding population in the world), monitoring numbers of vultures at landfills and satellite radiotracking of vultures.

Since 2015, the Greater Los Angeles Zoo Association (GLAZA) has, through Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, supported the work of IAR.  Two vultures were fitted with GPS radiotags in both 2015 and 2016, and two steppe eagles were fitted with tags in 2017—steppe eagles are also endangered; they breed mostly in central Asia, but migrate south (including into Oman) in the winter.

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An adult Egyptian vulture fitted with a GPS transmitter and ready for release being held by an Environment Society of Oman staff member.  Photo: M. McGrady

In January 2018, with the continuing support of GLAZA and Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, along with additional support from the Bernd Meyburg Foundation for Raptor Research and Conservation, IAR and its cooperators were able to capture 13 Egyptian vultures, 12 adults and one 2-year-old, and fit them with GPS tags.  Since then, the birds have been doing what vultures do.  Most of the vultures have spent their days ranging mostly in northeast Oman in the Hajar mountains and surrounding foothills. They have made regular visits to landfills, roosted in steep wadis in the mountains, and perched on high voltage electricity pylons. One bird has behaved a bit differently and has made at least two laps of the northern part of the country, seemingly always on the move.

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Adult Egyptian vulture in Oman in January 2018.  The GPS transmitter is fitted as a backpack and can be barely seen. Photo: M. McGrady

What do or will we learn from tracking, and how can this help conserve Egyptian vultures?  Well, the tracking of four vultures since 2015 has revealed that in Oman, Egyptian vultures suffer from electrocution and make regular use of landfills for feeding.  The data indicate that the vultures may move around in a way so as to keep tabs on the availability of food.  This, if you think about it, makes sense for a species that must find food that is not reliably available at all times.  The data further suggest that ongoing upgrades to waste management in Oman, reducing the number of dumps from over 300 to 12, may not have negative effects on vultures.  Indeed, improved waste management may make food resources safer for vultures and at the same time find benefits for human health, which is really good news.   IAR and ESO have also used the information to educate the public, including school children, about vultures and the important ecosystem services they provide as nature’s waste managers.

The data from these newly deployed tags should help the cooperating groups do more.  As we try to understand the ecology of the Egyptian vulture in order to conserve them, more data is important to the pursuit of science-based solutions.  From a public education standpoint, a complete “story” that includes more individuals over more years, provides a compelling case for conservation.  Also, with so many tagged adult birds, at least some are expected to be migrants, so new information on timing and routes of migration should be collected, and the location of breeding areas farther north can be determined. Such information is important in devising effective conservation strategies that span the huge range covered by migratory individuals, and it demonstrates the connectivity between breeding and wintering areas, which are sometimes separated by thousands of kilometers.

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Movements of 13 Egyptian vultures caught and fitted with GPS transmitters in Oman in January 2018.

 

If you want to keep up with this effort, IAR posts information every so often on the project at https://egyptianvultureoman.blogspot.co.at/ .  If you would like to support this project, please do so through an earmarked donation to Hawk Mountain Sanctuary.

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